When you’ve installed ADS-B OUT equipment on your aircraft there are several requirements you’ll need to think about.
ADS-B is a simple system to operate. The crew must ensure that the transponder is switched on. Always enter your FLIGHT ID exactly as per your flight plan.
If you don’t file a flight plan, enter your aircraft registration without the ZK prefix.
Make sure you initialize your GPS before moving your aircraft to ensure that the correct information transmitted.
Please note that problems with the integrity or continuity of the GNSS signal will affect the information provided by the transponder to the ATM system. Be alert to any other indications that the GNSS receiver may be faulty or not receiving adequate information.
The process for ADS-B OUT inoperable in flight will be the same as the loss of Mode A and C or Mode S during flight.
Advise ATC and apply the procedures outlined in your Operations Manual and the Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) ENR page 1.6-11 para 3.5.1 Transponder failure/ special procedures.
After landing your aircraft, consider what repair or maintenance is required to correct the problem.
No. You will not require any additional ratings to fly in an ADS-B OUT environment. However, you should be familiar with any change to procedures that might affect you, particularly in the event of loss of GNSS signal, or a transponder fault.
Yes. If an aircraft is capable of transmitting ADS-B, but the ADS-B OUT system is unserviceable, operators should file Surveillance type S and add RMKS/ADS-B Unserviceable to the flight plan. The flight plan must be acceptable to the relevant ATS unit(s).
Operators should advise Airways that the aircraft may be transmitting degraded data. Degraded data will generate alarms in the New Zealand ATC system, and direction from ATC to the aircraft crew. This can be avoided with forward notice to Airways.
Note that this approach is intended to address one-off loss of capability. It is not acceptable on an ongoing basis. Furthermore, this capability is proposed to be amended. There is currently a Notice of Proposed Rule Making (NPRM) in circulation - see here for further details.
If an aircraft is transmitting non-compliant data, ATC will inform the crew and provide advice on managing or fixing the issue. If an inflight fix isn’t possible, ATC will manage the aircraft appropriately. Follow their instructions.
Airways reports instances of non-compliant data to CAA New Zealand. Transmission of non-compliant data is prohibited by CAR 91.257A
Once an operator is aware of a problem with an aircraft’s ADS-B OUT transmissions, it is the operator’s responsibility to fix the issue. Responses to continued non-compliance may include increased separation, exclusion from controlled airspace, and/or enforcement action.
A LAME or Part 145 organisation can provide you with the information specific to your aircraft.
Any technical questions for the CAA can be directed towards Airworthiness@caa.govt.nz
Questions regarding the policy and rule development, or other suggestions for the Future surveillance implementation working group to consider, can be directed to ADSB@caa.govt.nz
See the ADS-B FAQ document